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PUBLICATIONS

The Gender Justice Initiative is a relatively new endeavor, with Dr. Jessica Shaw joining the Community and Prevention Research

faculty at UIC in August of 2019. Publications showcased here include work led by Dr. Shaw prior to and since joining UIC, as well

as work in which Dr. Shaw played more of a supporting role. Publications focus on the criminal justice and medical system responses

to sexual assault; unsubmitted sexual assault kits; the importance of systems-based approaches to research and action; advanced research methods; bridging the gap between research, policy, and practice; graduate student training; and evaluation.

Disclaimer: The articles provided as PDFs below are copyrighted to their corresponding publishers. PDF links are intended to facilitate the accepted practice that authors are allowed to distribute copies of their articles to interested parties for personal use. No commercial use may be made of these articles, nor is mass production of these articles permitted.

 

CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

This special issue of The American Journal of Community Psychology originated from the Society for Community Research and Action Criminal Justice interest group, with a goal of exploring the work of community psychologists intersecting with criminal justice research, practice, and policy and shaped by our shared values— equity, collaboration, creative maladjustment, social justice, and social science in the service of social justice. In this introduction, we discuss the socio-historical context of the special issue, followed by an outline of the special issue organization, and brief summary of the included papers. Across 13 papers and an invited commentary, we see the ways in which community psychologists are: (1) delivering and evaluating services, programming, or other supports to address the needs of system-involved people; and (2) working to improve the systems, structures, and interactions with units of criminal justice systems. Across these two sections, authors highlight the guiding role of our values to influence change within and outside of criminal-legal systems.

Shaw, J., Rade, C. B., Fisher, B. W., Freund, N., & Tompsett, C. J. (2021). Criminal Justice and Community Psychology: Our Values and Our Work—The Introduction to the Special Issue. American Journal of Community Psychology, 67(1-2), 3-6.

In jurisdictions throughout the United States, thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs; also known as a “rape kits”) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence may be helpful to sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying perpetrators, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. This paper describes a longitudinal action research project conducted in Detroit, Michigan after that city discovered approximately 11,000 untested sexual assault kits in a police department storage facility. We conducted a root cause analysis to examine individual, organizational, community, and societal factors that contributed to the development of the rape kit backlog in Detroit. Based on those findings, we implemented and evaluated structural changes to increase staffing, promote kit testing, and retrain police and prosecutors so that cases could be reopened for investigation and prosecution. As we conducted this work, we also studied how this action research project impacted the Detroit criminal justice system. Participating in this project changed stakeholders’ attitudes about the utility of research to address community problems, the usefulness of DNA evidence in sexual assault cases, and the impact of trauma on survivors. The results led to new protocols for SAK testing and police investigations, and new state legislation mandating SAK forensic DNA testing.

Campbell, R., Fehler‐Cabral, G., Pierce, S. J., Sharma, D. B., Shaw, J., Horsford, S., & Feeney, H. (2020). Changing the criminal justice system response to sexual assault: an empirical study of a participatory action research project. American journal of community psychology.

"Purpose: Stockpiles of unsubmitted sexual assault kits have been documented in jurisdictions across the country. The present study examines the rate and predictors of sexual assault kit submission across one entire state while accounting for potential variation between cities. Methods: We obtained data (final n = 4,204) relating to all sexual assault kits completed in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2015 from a state safety agency and all crime laboratories in the state. We employed logistic mixed modeling to account for the nested nature of the data, with sexual assault kits corresponding to assaults that took place in different cities. Models included city in which the assault occurred (level 2) as well as victim, assault, and case characteristics (level 1). Results: Ninety percent of the kits included in the sample were submitted to the crime lab for analysis. Few victim and assault characteristics predicted kit submission. The city in which the assault occurred was associated with substantial variation in the likelihood of kit submission, accounting for 43% of the variation in the dependent variable. Conclusions: Findings suggest that state and organizational culture, policy, and practice substantially contribute to sexual assault kit handling; further research is required to identify these key factors."

Shaw, J., Coates, V., & Janulis, P. (2020). High rates of sexual assault kit submission and the important role of place. Journal of Criminal Justice, 67, 101671.

"Prior research has consistently documented that the vast majority of sexual assault cases do not progress through the criminal justice system. However, there is less agreement in prior work on how race influences case progression, resulting in a literature frequently described as "inconsistent." This systematic review examines all prior research that has included race as an independent variable in predicting the criminal justice system response to sexual assault (N = 34) in an effort to provide insight into seemingly disparate findings. We assess each study for the degree to which race was a focal point of interest, if and what theory was used to inform the investigation of race, how samples were drawn, and how and whose race was measured. Results illustrate that findings in prior research are not inconsistent, but rather unite to tell a nuanced story of the role of race in the criminal justice system response to sexual assault. The review demonstrates how decisions made by researchers throughout the research process can have significant impacts on reported findings, and how such findings may be used to influence policy and practice."

Shaw, J., & Lee, H. (2019). Race and the criminal justice system response to sexual assault: A systematic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 64(1-2), 255-276. 

"Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system. Victims of nonstranger sexual assaults were less likely to reengage postnotification compared with victims of stranger rape."



Campbell, R., Shaw, J., & Fehler-Cabral, G. (2018). Evaluation of a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol for untested sexual assault kits (SAKs). Violence Against Women 24(4), 379-400. 

"Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) (also termed “rape kits”) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence can help sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying offenders, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. In this article, we describe a 5-year action research project conducted with 1 city that had large numbers of untested SAKs—Detroit, Michigan—and our examination into why thousands of rape kits in this city were never submitted for forensic DNA testing. This mixed methods study combined ethnographic observations and qualitative interviews to identify stakeholders’ perspectives as to why rape kits were not routinely submitted for testing. Then, we quantitatively examined whether these factors may have affected police practices regarding SAK testing, as evidenced by predictable changes in SAK submission rates over time. Chronic resource scarcity only partially explained why the organizations that serve rape victims—the police, crime lab, prosecution, and victim advocacy—could not test all rape kits, investigate all reported sexual assaults, and support all rape survivors. SAK submission rates significantly increased once criminal justice professionals in this city had full access to the FBI DNA forensic database Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), but even then, most SAKs were still not submitted for DNA testing. Building crime laboratories’ capacities for DNA testing and training police on the utility of forensic evidence and best practices in sexual assault investigations can help remedy, and possibly prevent, the problem of untested rape kits."

Campbell, R., Fehler-Cabral, G., Bybee, D., & Shaw, J. (2017). Forgotten evidence: A mixed methods study of why sexual assault kits (SAKs) are not submitted for DNA forensic testing. Law and Human Behavior, 41(5), 454-467. 

"Victims of sexual assault are often advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault kit (SAK; also termed a “rape kit”) to preserve physical evidence (e.g., semen, blood, and/or saliva samples) to aid in the investigation and prosecution of the crime. Law enforcement are tasked with submitting the rape kit to a forensic laboratory for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis, which can be instrumental in identifying offenders in previously unsolved crimes, confirming identify in known-offender assaults, discovering serial rapists, and exonerating individuals wrongly accused. However, a growing number of media stories, investigative advocacy projects, and social science studies indicate that police are not routinely submitting SAKs for forensic testing, and instead rape kits are placed in evidence storage, sometimes for decades. This review article examines the growing national problem of untested rape kits by summarizing current research on the number of untested SAKs in the United States and exploring the underlying reasons why police do not submit this evidence for DNA testing. Recommendations for future research that can guide policy and practice are discussed."

Campbell, R., Feeney, H., Fehler-Cabral, G., Shaw, J., & Horsford, S. (2017). The national problem of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs): Why aren’t police submitting rape kits for DNA analysis? Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 18(4), 363-376. 

"The majority of sexual assault cases reported to police are never prosecuted. Prior literature has suggested rape myths may explain these trends because police are influenced by and draw upon rape myths in their beliefs, assumptions, and actions. However, prior research has relied on surveys to measure police attitudes; less is known regarding the extent to which these attitudes manifest in official sexual assault case records. The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent to which rape myths manifest in sexual assault investigations and develop a typology of statements that functionally operate as rape myths in official police records. The written police records from N = 248 sexual assault cases were examined. Cases were coded via directed and conventional content analysis for rape myths. Statements in police records drew upon rape myths that denied or justified the assault on the basis of specific circumstances of the assault (i.e., circumstantial statements) and specific characteristics of the victim (i.e., characterological statements). Statements in police reports also blamed victims for the way police responded to the assault (i.e., investigatory blame statements). Rape myth endorsement among police is evidenced in official sexual assault case records because they invoke traditional rape myths in documenting their investigations. More frequently, police account for their response by blaming the victim for a poor police investigation postassault. Findings suggest that future research should examine the extent to which such statements predict sexual assault case progression and that training for police should emphasize behavioral change (i.e., report writing)."

Shaw, J., Campbell, R., Cain, D., & Feeney, H. (2017). Beyond surveys and scales: How rape myths manifest in sexual assault police records. Psychology of Violence, 7(4), 602-614. 

"Prior research has documented the problematic community response to sexual assault: the majority of sexual assaults reported to police are never prosecuted. Social dominance theory suggests that this response is a form of institutional discrimination, intended to maintain existing social structures, and that police personnel likely draw upon shared ideologies to justify their decision-making in sexual assault case investigations. This study drew upon social dominance theory to examine how police justified their investigatory decisions to identify potential leverage points for change. The study revealed that the likelihood of a case referral to the prosecutor increased with each additional investigative step completed; of the different types of justifications provided by police for a less-than-thorough investigative response and stalled case, blaming the victim for the poor police investigation proved to be the most damaging to case progression; and the type of explanation provided by police was impacted by specific case variables. As suggested by social dominance theory, the study demonstrates that police rely on several different mechanisms to justify their response to sexual assault; implementing criminal justice system policies that target and interrupt these mechanisms has the potential to improve this response, regardless of specific case factors."

Shaw, J., Campbell, R., & Cain, D. (2016). The view from inside the system: How police explain their response to sexual assault. American Journal of Community Psychology, 58(3-4), 446-462. 

"Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit."

Valentine, J., Shaw, J., Lark, A., & Campbell, R. (2016). Now we know: Assessing sexual assault criminal justice case processing in an urban community using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 12(3), 133-140. 

"To address the underreporting and underprosecution of adult sexual assaults, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and the criminal justice system response. One such model is the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program, whereby specially trained nurses provide comprehensive psychological, medical, and forensic services for sexual assault. In this study, we conducted a multisite evaluation of six SANE programs (two rural programs, two serving midsized communities, two urban) to assess how implementation of SANE programs affects adult sexual assault prosecution rates. At each site, most sexual assaults reported to law enforcement were never referred by police to prosecutors or were not charged by the prosecutor's office (80%-89%). Individually, none of the sites had a statistically significant increase in prosecution rates pre-SANE to post-SANE. However, when the data were aggregated across sites, thereby increasing statistical power, there was a significant effect such that cases were more likely to be prosecuted post-SANE as compared with pre-SANE. These findings suggest that the SANE intervention model does have a positive impact on sexual assault case progression in the criminal justice system. Nevertheless, there is still a pressing need for improvement as the vast majority of both pre-SANE and post-SANE resulted in nonreferral/no charges filed."

Campbell, R., Bybee, D., Townsend, S.M., Shaw, J., Karim, N., & Markowitz, J. (2014). The impact of sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs on criminal justice case outcomes: A multi-site replication study. Violence Against Women, (20)5, 607-625. 

"There has been sustained interest in the academic literature and in policy circles regarding how Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs may bolster sexual assault prosecution rates in their communities, in addition to the health care they provide to their patients. To build evaluation capacity among forensic nurses so that they can evaluate their own programs, a practitioner-oriented, step-by-step evaluation toolkit (the SANE Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit) that can be used by SANE-A and SANE-P programs, and their community partners, to examine sexual assault prosecution rates in their local jurisdictions was created and validated. This article describes the process of creating and empirically validating the toolkit and presents the toolkit itself and accompanying resources that are available to practitioners. This article also provides recommendations regarding program readiness to engage in evaluation activities, without compromising program sustainability and patient care."

Campbell, R., Townsend, S., Shaw, J., Karim, N., & Markowitz, J. (2014). Evaluating the legal impact of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs: An empirically validated toolkit for practitioners. Journal of Forensic Nursing 10(4), 208-216. 

"Following a sexual assault, victims are usually advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault forensic exam kit (SAK). Once completed, the SAK is to be transported by law enforcement to the crime lab for analysis. However, many kits are never transported to the crime lab, thereby preventing forensic evidence obtained in the kit to be used during the prosecutorial process. The current study examined rates of SAK submission for 393 adolescent sexual assault cases in two Midwestern communities and explored what factors predicted law enforcement officers' submission of SAKs to the crime lab for analysis. Findings reveal that more than 40% of the adolescent cases did not have their SAK submitted, and several factors, including the age and race of the victim, the number of perpetrators in the assault, and the number of assaultive acts, predicted SAK submission. Implications for SAK community protocols are discussed."

Shaw, J., & Campbell, R. (2013). Predicting sexual assault kit submission among adolescent rape cases treated in a forensic nurse examiner program. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(18), 3400-3417. 

 

MEDICAL SYSTEM

"Following a mass casualty, there is urgent need for the skills and services provided in hospitals by both medical social workers and employee assistance program (EAP) or occupational social workers (hereinafter referred to as EAP social workers, although we recognize that not all hospitals have on-site EAP teams). Medical social workers work with patients and families undergoing major, often life-altering trauma, and EAP social workers use similar skills to respond to mental health needs of their coworkers that may arise during the course of disaster response, providing direct support and helping facilitate supportive organizational policies and practices. However, at smaller institutions or those without a dedicated EAP social work team, medical social workers often fill both roles after mass casualty events, sometimes at the expense of their own mental health. In this commentary, we discuss roles that both EAP and medical social workers can play in supporting the mental health and well-being of hospital staff before, during, and after a mass casualty event, and provide recommendations for how these steps can be codified into hospital and citywide disaster response plans.​"

Sabbath, E., Shaw, J., Stidsen, A., & Hashimoto, D. (2018). Protecting mental health of hospital workers after mass casualty events: A social work imperative. Social Work, swy029, 1-4. 

"Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit."

Valentine, J., Shaw, J., Lark, A., & Campbell, R. (2016). Now we know: Assessing sexual assault criminal justice case processing in an urban community using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 12(3), 133-140. 

"To address the underreporting and underprosecution of adult sexual assaults, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and the criminal justice system response. One such model is the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program, whereby specially trained nurses provide comprehensive psychological, medical, and forensic services for sexual assault. In this study, we conducted a multisite evaluation of six SANE programs (two rural programs, two serving midsized communities, two urban) to assess how implementation of SANE programs affects adult sexual assault prosecution rates. At each site, most sexual assaults reported to law enforcement were never referred by police to prosecutors or were not charged by the prosecutor's office (80%-89%). Individually, none of the sites had a statistically significant increase in prosecution rates pre-SANE to post-SANE. However, when the data were aggregated across sites, thereby increasing statistical power, there was a significant effect such that cases were more likely to be prosecuted post-SANE as compared with pre-SANE. These findings suggest that the SANE intervention model does have a positive impact on sexual assault case progression in the criminal justice system. Nevertheless, there is still a pressing need for improvement as the vast majority of both pre-SANE and post-SANE resulted in nonreferral/no charges filed."

Campbell, R., Bybee, D., Townsend, S.M., Shaw, J., Karim, N., & Markowitz, J. (2014). The impact of sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs on criminal justice case outcomes: A multi-site replication study. Violence Against Women, (20)5, 607-625. 

"There has been sustained interest in the academic literature and in policy circles regarding how Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs may bolster sexual assault prosecution rates in their communities, in addition to the health care they provide to their patients. To build evaluation capacity among forensic nurses so that they can evaluate their own programs, a practitioner-oriented, step-by-step evaluation toolkit (the SANE Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit) that can be used by SANE-A and SANE-P programs, and their community partners, to examine sexual assault prosecution rates in their local jurisdictions was created and validated. This article describes the process of creating and empirically validating the toolkit and presents the toolkit itself and accompanying resources that are available to practitioners. This article also provides recommendations regarding program readiness to engage in evaluation activities, without compromising program sustainability and patient care."

Campbell, R., Townsend, S., Shaw, J., Karim, N., & Markowitz, J. (2014). Evaluating the legal impact of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs: An empirically validated toolkit for practitioners. Journal of Forensic Nursing 10(4), 208-216. 

"Following a sexual assault, victims are usually advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault forensic exam kit (SAK). Once completed, the SAK is to be transported by law enforcement to the crime lab for analysis. However, many kits are never transported to the crime lab, thereby preventing forensic evidence obtained in the kit to be used during the prosecutorial process. The current study examined rates of SAK submission for 393 adolescent sexual assault cases in two Midwestern communities and explored what factors predicted law enforcement officers' submission of SAKs to the crime lab for analysis. Findings reveal that more than 40% of the adolescent cases did not have their SAK submitted, and several factors, including the age and race of the victim, the number of perpetrators in the assault, and the number of assaultive acts, predicted SAK submission. Implications for SAK community protocols are discussed."

Shaw, J., & Campbell, R. (2013). Predicting sexual assault kit submission among adolescent rape cases treated in a forensic nurse examiner program. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(18), 3400-3417. 

 

SEXUAL ASSAULT KITS

In jurisdictions throughout the United States, thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs; also known as a “rape kits”) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence may be helpful to sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying perpetrators, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. This paper describes a longitudinal action research project conducted in Detroit, Michigan after that city discovered approximately 11,000 untested sexual assault kits in a police department storage facility. We conducted a root cause analysis to examine individual, organizational, community, and societal factors that contributed to the development of the rape kit backlog in Detroit. Based on those findings, we implemented and evaluated structural changes to increase staffing, promote kit testing, and retrain police and prosecutors so that cases could be reopened for investigation and prosecution. As we conducted this work, we also studied how this action research project impacted the Detroit criminal justice system. Participating in this project changed stakeholders’ attitudes about the utility of research to address community problems, the usefulness of DNA evidence in sexual assault cases, and the impact of trauma on survivors. The results led to new protocols for SAK testing and police investigations, and new state legislation mandating SAK forensic DNA testing.

"Purpose: Stockpiles of unsubmitted sexual assault kits have been documented in jurisdictions across the country. The present study examines the rate and predictors of sexual assault kit submission across one entire state while accounting for potential variation between cities. Methods: We obtained data (final n = 4,204) relating to all sexual assault kits completed in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2015 from a state safety agency and all crime laboratories in the state. We employed logistic mixed modeling to account for the nested nature of the data, with sexual assault kits corresponding to assaults that took place in different cities. Models included city in which the assault occurred (level 2) as well as victim, assault, and case characteristics (level 1). Results: Ninety percent of the kits included in the sample were submitted to the crime lab for analysis. Few victim and assault characteristics predicted kit submission. The city in which the assault occurred was associated with substantial variation in the likelihood of kit submission, accounting for 43% of the variation in the dependent variable. Conclusions: Findings suggest that state and organizational culture, policy, and practice substantially contribute to sexual assault kit handling; further research is required to identify these key factors."

Shaw, J., Coates, V., & Janulis, P. (2020). High rates of sexual assault kit submission and the important role of place. Journal of Criminal Justice, 67, 101671.

"Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system. Victims of non-stranger sexual assaults were less likely to reengage post-notification compared with victims of stranger rape."

Campbell, R., Shaw, J., & Fehler-Cabral, G. (2018). Evaluation of a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol for untested sexual assault kits (SAKs). Violence Against Women 24(4), 379-400. 

"Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) (also termed "rape kits") have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence can help sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying offenders, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. In this article, we describe a 5-year action research project conducted with 1 city that had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-and our examination into why thousands of rape kits in this city were never submitted for forensic DNA testing. This mixed methods study combined ethnographic observations and qualitative interviews to identify stakeholders' perspectives as to why rape kits were not routinely submitted for testing. Then, we quantitatively examined whether these factors may have affected police practices regarding SAK testing, as evidenced by predictable changes in SAK submission rates over time. Chronic resource scarcity only partially explained why the organizations that serve rape victims-the police, crime lab, prosecution, and victim advocacy-could not test all rape kits, investigate all reported sexual assaults, and support all rape survivors. SAK submission rates significantly increased once criminal justice professionals in this city had full access to the FBI DNA forensic database Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), but even then, most SAKs were still not submitted for DNA testing. Building crime laboratories' capacities for DNA testing and training police on the utility of forensic evidence and best practices in sexual assault investigations can help remedy, and possibly prevent, the problem of untested rape kits."

Campbell, R., Fehler-Cabral, G., Bybee, D., & Shaw, J. (2017). Forgotten evidence: A mixed methods study of why sexual assault kits (SAKs) are not submitted for DNA forensic testing. Law and Human Behavior, 41(5), 454-467. 

"Victims of sexual assault are often advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault kit (SAK; also termed a “rape kit”) to preserve physical evidence (e.g., semen, blood, and/or saliva samples) to aid in the investigation and prosecution of the crime. Law enforcement are tasked with submitting the rape kit to a forensic laboratory for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis, which can be instrumental in identifying offenders in previously unsolved crimes, confirming identify in known-offender assaults, discovering serial rapists, and exonerating individuals wrongly accused. However, a growing number of media stories, investigative advocacy projects, and social science studies indicate that police are not routinely submitting SAKs for forensic testing, and instead rape kits are placed in evidence storage, sometimes for decades. This review article examines the growing national problem of untested rape kits by summarizing current research on the number of untested SAKs in the United States and exploring the underlying reasons why police do not submit this evidence for DNA testing. Recommendations for future research that can guide policy and practice are discussed."

Campbell, R., Feeney, H., Fehler-Cabral, G., Shaw, J., & Horsford, S. (2017). The national problem of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs): Why aren’t police submitting rape kits for DNA analysis? Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 18(4), 363-376. 

"A growing number of U.S. cities have large numbers of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs) in police property facilities. Testing older kits and maintaining current case work will be challenging for forensic laboratories, creating a need for more efficient testing methods. Methods: We evaluated selective degradation methods for DNA extraction using actual case work from a sample of previously unsubmitted SAKs in Detroit, Michigan. We randomly assigned 350 kits to either standard or selective degradation testing methods and then compared DNA testing rates and CODIS entry rates between the two groups. Results and conclusions: Continuation‐ratio modeling showed no significant differences, indicating that the selective degradation method had no decrement in performance relative to customary methods. Follow‐up equivalence tests indicated that CODIS entry rates for the two methods could differ by more than ±5%. Selective degradation methods required less personnel time for testing and scientific review than standard testing."


Campbell, R., Pierce, S.J., Sharma, D.B., Shaw, J., Feeney, H., Nye, J., Schelling, K., & Fehler-Cabral, G. (2017). Comparing standard and selective degradation DNA extraction methods: Results from a field experiment with sexual assault kits (SAKs). Journal of Forensic Sciences, 62(1), 213-222. 

"The importance of research-informed practice for the field of sexual assault has been stressed by academics and practitioners alike. However, there are few examples of researcher–practitioner partnerships in the literature, therefore providing minimal guidance for this process. This article describes a researcher–practitioner partnership that was successful in using evaluation data to guide practice and policy decisions regarding the development and implementation of a new sexual assault kit for the state of Michigan. Cousins’s practical participatory evaluation theory was used as the guiding framework for the evaluation. Data collection methods included focus groups with practitioners from five, regionally dispersed health care settings in Michigan, and surveys with forensic scientists throughout the state’s regional laboratory system. This case study highlights how researchers and practitioners worked together for data collection, analysis, and dissemination to support research-informed practice in this state. Lessons learned and future recommendations for forming researcher–practitioner partnerships to improve the response to sexual assault are discussed."

Shaw, J., Campbell, R., Hagstrom, J., O’Reilly, L., Kreiger, G., Cain, D., & Nye, J. (2016). Bringing research into practice: An evaluation of Michigan’s pilot sexual assault kit (SAK). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(8), 1476-1500. 

"In August 2009, approximately 11,000 sexual assault kits (SAKs; “rape kits”) were found in a Detroit police department storage facility, the vast majority of which had never been tested for DNA evidence. To address this problem, a multidisciplinary action research project was formed to bring together researchers and practitioners from law enforcement, prosecution, forensic sciences, medicine/nursing, and victim advocacy to develop evidence‐based response strategies. In this paper, we will draw upon qualitative interviews with Detroit stakeholders, archival records, and ethnographic observations to examine the events surrounding the discovery of the rape kits and why police personnel did not view the accumulation of so many untested SAKs as a problem. Over the course of this three‐year action research project, Detroit stakeholders worked together to enact local‐ and state‐level reforms to test these kits and to prevent this problem from happening again."

Campbell, R., Shaw, J., & Fehler-Cabral, G. (2015). Shelving justice: The discovery of thousands of untested rape kits in Detroit.  City & Community, 14(2), 151-166. 

"Following a sexual assault, victims are usually advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault forensic exam kit (SAK). Once completed, the SAK is to be transported by law enforcement to the crime lab for analysis. However, many kits are never transported to the crime lab, thereby preventing forensic evidence obtained in the kit to be used during the prosecutorial process. The current study examined rates of SAK submission for 393 adolescent sexual assault cases in two Midwestern communities and explored what factors predicted law enforcement officers' submission of SAKs to the crime lab for analysis. Findings reveal that more than 40% of the adolescent cases did not have their SAK submitted, and several factors, including the age and race of the victim, the number of perpetrators in the assault, and the number of assaultive acts, predicted SAK submission. Implications for SAK community protocols are discussed."

Shaw, J., & Campbell, R. (2013). Predicting sexual assault kit submission among adolescent rape cases treated in a forensic nurse examiner program. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(18), 3400-3417.

 

IMPORTANCE OF SYSTEMS ORIENTATION

In jurisdictions throughout the United States, thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs; also known as a “rape kits”) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence may be helpful to sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying perpetrators, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. This paper describes a longitudinal action research project conducted in Detroit, Michigan after that city discovered approximately 11,000 untested sexual assault kits in a police department storage facility. We conducted a root cause analysis to examine individual, organizational, community, and societal factors that contributed to the development of the rape kit backlog in Detroit. Based on those findings, we implemented and evaluated structural changes to increase staffing, promote kit testing, and retrain police and prosecutors so that cases could be reopened for investigation and prosecution. As we conducted this work, we also studied how this action research project impacted the Detroit criminal justice system. Participating in this project changed stakeholders’ attitudes about the utility of research to address community problems, the usefulness of DNA evidence in sexual assault cases, and the impact of trauma on survivors. The results led to new protocols for SAK testing and police investigations, and new state legislation mandating SAK forensic DNA testing.

Campbell, R., Fehler‐Cabral, G., Pierce, S. J., Sharma, D. B., Shaw, J., Horsford, S., & Feeney, H. (2020). Changing the criminal justice system response to sexual assault: an empirical study of a participatory action research project. American journal of community psychology.

"Following a mass casualty, there is urgent need for the skills and services provided in hospitals by both medical social workers and employee assistance program (EAP) or occupational social workers (hereinafter referred to as EAP social workers, although we recognize that not all hospitals have on-site EAP teams). Medical social workers work with patients and families undergoing major, often life-altering trauma, and EAP social workers use similar skills to respond to mental health needs of their coworkers that may arise during the course of disaster response, providing direct support and helping facilitate supportive organizational policies and practices. However, at smaller institutions or those without a dedicated EAP social work team, medical social workers often fill both roles after mass casualty events, sometimes at the expense of their own mental health. In this commentary, we discuss roles that both EAP and medical social workers can play in supporting the mental health and well-being of hospital staff before, during, and after a mass casualty event, and provide recommendations for how these steps can be codified into hospital and citywide disaster response plans."

Sabbath, E., Shaw, J., Stidsen, A., & Hashimoto, D. (2018). Protecting mental health of hospital workers after mass casualty events: A social work imperative. Social Work, swy029, 1-4. 

"Stories of resilience abound in American culture, and many social scientists have dedicated their programs of research to understanding what engenders resilience and developing interventions to promote it. However, too often our discussions on resilience limit it to something within the individual, effectively placing all responsibility for overcoming adversity on that individual. In this commentary, we caution against designing resilience research that fails to attend to system-level variables and how this approach can inadvertently reinforce the social circumstances it intends to help individuals overcome. The construct of resilience is multifaceted and multilevel, yet the majority of resilience research in the field of psychology operates at the individual-level of analysis. Several theories, approaches, and methods can aid resilience researchers in becoming more ecological. Through a renewed commitment to multiplicity in our research, we can better meet the needs of our communities and promote success."

Shaw, J., McLean, K., Taylor, B. Swartout, K., & Querna, K. (2016). Commentary: Beyond resilience: Why we need to look at systems too. Psychology of Violence, (6)1, 34-41. 

 

ADVANCED RESEARCH METHODS

In jurisdictions throughout the United States, thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs; also known as a “rape kits”) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence may be helpful to sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying perpetrators, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. This paper describes a longitudinal action research project conducted in Detroit, Michigan after that city discovered approximately 11,000 untested sexual assault kits in a police department storage facility. We conducted a root cause analysis to examine individual, organizational, community, and societal factors that contributed to the development of the rape kit backlog in Detroit. Based on those findings, we implemented and evaluated structural changes to increase staffing, promote kit testing, and retrain police and prosecutors so that cases could be reopened for investigation and prosecution. As we conducted this work, we also studied how this action research project impacted the Detroit criminal justice system. Participating in this project changed stakeholders’ attitudes about the utility of research to address community problems, the usefulness of DNA evidence in sexual assault cases, and the impact of trauma on survivors. The results led to new protocols for SAK testing and police investigations, and new state legislation mandating SAK forensic DNA testing.


Campbell, R., Fehler‐Cabral, G., Pierce, S. J., Sharma, D. B., Shaw, J., Horsford, S., & Feeney, H. (2020). Changing the criminal justice system response to sexual assault: an empirical study of a participatory action research project. American journal of community psychology.

"Recently, there has been a call for more advanced analytic techniques in violence against women research, particularly in community interventions that use longitudinal designs. The current study re-evaluates experimental evaluation data from a sexual violence bystander intervention program. Using an exploratory latent growth curve approach, we were able to model the longitudinal growth trajectories of individual participants over the course of the entire study. Although the results largely confirm the original evaluation findings, the latent growth curve approach better fits the demands of “messy” data (e.g., missing data, varying number of time points per participant, and unequal time spacing within and between participants) that are frequently obtained during a community-based intervention. The benefits of modern statistical techniques to practitioners and researchers in the field of sexual violence prevention, and violence against women more generally, are further discussed."

Shaw, J., & Janulis, P. (2016). Re-evaluating sexual violence prevention through bystander education: A latent growth curve approach. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(16), 2729-2750. 

"Process use refers to the ways in which stakeholders and/or evaluands change as a function of participating in evaluation activities. Although the concept of process use has been well discussed in the literature, exploration of methodological strategies for the measurement and assessment of process use has been limited. Typically, empirical research on process use has been limited to cross-sectional studies in single-site evaluation projects. In this method note, we present a longitudinal study of process use in a multisite evaluation project. Stakeholders’ changes in learning, attitudes, and behavior/action were assessed at three time points: prior to the onset of evaluation consultation; near the conclusion of a 1-year participatory consultation project; and 6–8 weeks after the termination of the project. Results showed that different domains of process use had differential development over time. Implications for measuring process use are discussed."

Shaw, J., & Campbell, R. (2014). The “process” of process use: Methods for longitudinal assessment in a multi-site evaluation. American Journal of Evaluation, 35(2), 250-260. 

"Stories of resilience abound in American culture, and many social scientists have dedicated their programs of research to understanding what engenders resilience and developing interventions to promote it. However, too often our discussions on resilience limit it to something within the individual, effectively placing all responsibility for overcoming adversity on that individual. In this commentary, we caution against designing resilience research that fails to attend to system-level variables and how this approach can inadvertently reinforce the social circumstances it intends to help individuals overcome. The construct of resilience is multifaceted and multilevel, yet the majority of resilience research in the field of psychology operates at the individual-level of analysis. Several theories, approaches, and methods can aid resilience researchers in becoming more ecological. Through a renewed commitment to multiplicity in our research, we can better meet the needs of our communities and promote success."

Shaw, J., McLean, K., Taylor, B. Swartout, K., & Querna, K. (2016). Commentary: Beyond resilience: Why we need to look at systems too. Psychology of Violence, (6)1, 34-41. 

 

BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN RESEARCH, POLICY, AND PRACTICE

In jurisdictions throughout the United States, thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs; also known as a “rape kits”) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence may be helpful to sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying perpetrators, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. This paper describes a longitudinal action research project conducted in Detroit, Michigan after that city discovered approximately 11,000 untested sexual assault kits in a police department storage facility. We conducted a root cause analysis to examine individual, organizational, community, and societal factors that contributed to the development of the rape kit backlog in Detroit. Based on those findings, we implemented and evaluated structural changes to increase staffing, promote kit testing, and retrain police and prosecutors so that cases could be reopened for investigation and prosecution. As we conducted this work, we also studied how this action research project impacted the Detroit criminal justice system. Participating in this project changed stakeholders’ attitudes about the utility of research to address community problems, the usefulness of DNA evidence in sexual assault cases, and the impact of trauma on survivors. The results led to new protocols for SAK testing and police investigations, and new state legislation mandating SAK forensic DNA testing.

Campbell, R., Fehler‐Cabral, G., Pierce, S. J., Sharma, D. B., Shaw, J., Horsford, S., & Feeney, H. (2020). Changing the criminal justice system response to sexual assault: an empirical study of a participatory action research project. American journal of community psychology.

"Research can be used to develop empirically informed policy solutions to our most pressing public problems. However, research is all too often left out of the public policymaking conversation. Researchers can change this, by learning how to engage and collaborate with policymakers. In this article, we present and adapt a conceptual framework from the field of community psychology-Kelly's (1971) "Qualities for a Community Psychologist"-to provide insight into training graduate students for policy engagement."

Shaw, J., Feeney, H., & Campbell, R. (2019). Never too early to start: Training graduate students for policy work. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 89(4), 426-433. 

"Science can provide empirically-informed strategies and resources to inform and improve policy and practice, though all too often science, policy, and practice operate independently from one another. Research mediators play a critical role by attempting to connect these different worlds. This practice paper presents lessons learned and recommendations for improving the effectiveness of research mediators in bridging the science-practice gap based on the experiences of a Visiting Fellow in a United States federal research agency. To support evidence-informed policy and practice, research mediators must engage in inward-looking processes--they must attend to their own internal science-practice gaps, commit to interdisciplinarity, and institutionalise such work."

Shaw, J. (2018). How can research mediators better mediate?: The importance of inward-looking processes. Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate, & Practice (14)1, 143-153. 

"The importance of research-informed practice for the field of sexual assault has been stressed by academics and practitioners alike. However, there are few examples of researcher–practitioner partnerships in the literature, therefore providing minimal guidance for this process. This article describes a researcher–practitioner partnership that was successful in using evaluation data to guide practice and policy decisions regarding the development and implementation of a new sexual assault kit for the state of Michigan. Cousins’s practical participatory evaluation theory was used as the guiding framework for the evaluation. Data collection methods included focus groups with practitioners from five, regionally dispersed health care settings in Michigan, and surveys with forensic scientists throughout the state’s regional laboratory system. This case study highlights how researchers and practitioners worked together for data collection, analysis, and dissemination to support research-informed practice in this state. Lessons learned and future recommendations for forming researcher–practitioner partnerships to improve the response to sexual assault are discussed."

Shaw, J., Campbell, R., Hagstrom, J., O’Reilly, L., Kreiger, G., Cain, D., & Nye, J. (2016). Bringing research into practice: An evaluation of Michigan’s pilot sexual assault kit (SAK). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(8), 1476-1500. 

 

GRADUATE STUDENT TRAINING

"Many schools of social work offer courses on program evaluation. However, one component of program evaluation—theories of evaluation—may all too often be left out of the curriculum. This Teaching Note defines and describes evaluation theory and the benefits of including it in a program evaluation curriculum in schools of social work. Specific ideas for incorporating this content into MSW and doctoral courses in schools of social work are provided."

Shaw, J. (2019). Teaching note: A call for including theories of evaluation in program evaluation courses taught in schools of social work. Journal of Social Work Education, 55(3), 596-601. 

"Research can be used to develop empirically informed policy solutions to our most pressing public problems. However, research is all too often left out of the public policymaking conversation. Researchers can change this, by learning how to engage and collaborate with policymakers. In this article, we present and adapt a conceptual framework from the field of community psychology-Kelly's (1971) "Qualities for a Community Psychologist"-to provide insight into training graduate students for policy engagement."


Shaw, J., Feeney, H., & Campbell, R. (2019). Never too early to start: Training graduate students for policy work. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 89(4), 426-433. 

 

EVALUATION

"Many schools of social work offer courses on program evaluation. However, one component of program evaluation—theories of evaluation—may all too often be left out of the curriculum. This Teaching Note defines and describes evaluation theory and the benefits of including it in a program evaluation curriculum in schools of social work. Specific ideas for incorporating this content into MSW and doctoral courses in schools of social work are provided."

Shaw, J. (2019). Teaching note: A call for including theories of evaluation in program evaluation courses taught in schools of social work. Journal of Social Work Education, 55(3), 596-601. 

"Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system. Victims of nonstranger sexual assaults were less likely to reengage postnotification compared with victims of stranger rape."


Campbell, R., Shaw, J., & Fehler-Cabral, G. (2018). Evaluation of a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol for untested sexual assault kits (SAKs). Violence Against Women 24(4), 379-400. 

"The importance of research-informed practice for the field of sexual assault has been stressed by academics and practitioners alike. However, there are few examples of researcher-practitioner partnerships in the literature, therefore providing minimal guidance for this process. This article describes a researcher-practitioner partnership that was successful in using evaluation data to guide practice and policy decisions regarding the development and implementation of a new sexual assault kit for the state of Michigan. Cousins's practical participatory evaluation theory was used as the guiding framework for the evaluation. Data collection methods included focus groups with practitioners from five, regionally dispersed health care settings in Michigan, and surveys with forensic scientists throughout the state's regional laboratory system. This case study highlights how researchers and practitioners worked together for data collection, analysis, and dissemination to support research-informed practice in this state. Lessons learned and future recommendations for forming researcher-practitioner partnerships to improve the response to sexual assault are discussed."

Shaw, J., Campbell, R., Hagstrom, J., O’Reilly, L., Kreiger, G., Cain, D., & Nye, J. (2016). Bringing research into practice: An evaluation of Michigan’s pilot sexual assault kit (SAK). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(8), 1476-1500. 

"Recently, there has been a call for more advanced analytic techniques in violence against women research, particularly in community interventions that use longitudinal designs. The current study re-evaluates experimental evaluation data from a sexual violence bystander intervention program. Using an exploratory latent growth curve approach, we were able to model the longitudinal growth trajectories of individual participants over the course of the entire study. Although the results largely confirm the original evaluation findings, the latent growth curve approach better fits the demands of "messy" data (e.g., missing data, varying number of time points per participant, and unequal time spacing within and between participants) that are frequently obtained during a community-based intervention. The benefits of modern statistical techniques to practitioners and researchers in the field of sexual violence prevention, and violence against women more generally, are further discussed."

Shaw, J., & Janulis, P. (2016). Re-evaluating sexual violence prevention through bystander education: A latent growth curve approach. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(16), 2729-2750. 

"Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit."

Valentine, J., Shaw, J., Lark, A., & Campbell, R. (2016). Now we know: Assessing sexual assault criminal justice case processing in an urban community using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 12(3), 133-140. 

"In large-scale, multi-site contexts, developing and disseminating practitioner-oriented evaluation toolkits are an increasingly common strategy for building evaluation capacity. Toolkits explain the evaluation process, present evaluation design choices, and offer step-by-step guidance to practitioners. To date, there has been limited research on whether such resources truly foster the successful design, implementation, and use of evaluation findings. In this paper, we describe a multi-site project in which we developed a practitioner evaluation toolkit and then studied the extent to which the toolkit and accompanying technical assistance was effective in promoting successful completion of local-level evaluations and fostering instrumental use of the findings (i.e., whether programs directly used their findings to improve practice, see Patton, 2008). Forensic nurse practitioners from six geographically dispersed service programs completed methodologically rigorous evaluations; furthermore, all six programs used the findings to create programmatic and community-level changes to improve local practice. Implications for evaluation capacity building are discussed."

Campbell, R., Townsend, S., Shaw, J., Karim, N., & Markowitz, J. (2015). Can a workbook work?: Developing a practitioner toolkit to promote evaluation use in a multi-site project. Evaluation and Program Planning, 52, 107-117. 

"In large-scale, multi-site contexts, developing and disseminating practitioner-oriented evaluation toolkits are an increasingly common strategy for building evaluation capacity. Toolkits explain the evaluation process, present evaluation design choices, and offer step-by-step guidance to practitioners. To date, there has been limited research on whether such resources truly foster the successful design, implementation, and use of evaluation findings. In this paper, we describe a multi-site project in which we developed a practitioner evaluation toolkit and then studied the extent to which the toolkit and accompanying technical assistance was effective in promoting successful completion of local-level evaluations and fostering instrumental use of the findings (i.e., whether programs directly used their findings to improve practice, see Patton, 2008). Forensic nurse practitioners from six geographically dispersed service programs completed methodologically rigorous evaluations; furthermore, all six programs used the findings to create programmatic and community-level changes to improve local practice. Implications for evaluation capacity building are discussed."

Campbell, R., Townsend, S., Shaw, J., Karim, N., & Markowitz, J. (2014). Evaluating the legal impact of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs: An empirically-validated toolkit for practitioners. Journal of Forensic Nursing 10(4), 208-216. 

"Process use refers to the ways in which stakeholders and/or evaluands change as a function of participating in evaluation activities. Although the concept of process use has been well discussed in the literature, exploration of methodological strategies for the measurement and assessment of process use has been limited. Typically, empirical research on process use has been limited to cross-sectional studies in single-site evaluation projects. In this method note, we present a longitudinal study of process use in a multisite evaluation project. Stakeholders’ changes in learning, attitudes, and behavior/action were assessed at three time points: prior to the onset of evaluation consultation; near the conclusion of a 1-year participatory consultation project; and 6–8 weeks after the termination of the project. Results showed that different domains of process use had differential development over time. Implications for measuring process use are discussed."

Shaw, J., & Campbell, R. (2014). The “process” of process use: Methods for longitudinal assessment in a multi-site evaluation. American Journal of Evaluation, 35(2), 250-260.